- 1Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA.
- 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA.
- 3Division of Adult Reconstruction Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York University Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY.
- 4Department of Orthopaedics, New England Baptist Hospital, Boston, MA.
Background: Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) have an increased risk of complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). There is a limited but growing body of evidence on the benefit of preoperative antiviral treatment to reduce complications after TJA. What has not been well established is the effect of preoperative antiviral treatment among those with advanced disease as indicated by hepatic fibrosis.
Methods: In total, 270 patients at 2 urban medical centers were reviewed for patient demographics, comorbidities, HCV treatment, hepatic fibrosis status, surgical information, and postoperative complications. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on their antiviral treatment status prior to TJA: Treated (n = 129) and Untreated (n = 141). Pearson's chi-squared test, Student's t-test, and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze complications between groups.
Results: Patients in the Treated group had significantly fewer all-type complications (4.7% vs 14.9%, P = .007), infections (2.3% vs 12.1%, P = .002), and reoperations (0.8% vs 9.9%, P = .001) compared to the Untreated group. After controlling for hepatic fibrosis, we found that Treated patients still had significantly lower odds of experiencing all-type complications (odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.88; P = .028), infection (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04-0.87; P = .033), and reoperation (OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01-0.90; P = .039) following TJA.
Conclusion: HCV antiviral treatment reduces postoperative complications after primary TJA, even among those who have progressed to hepatic fibrosis. Surgeons can use this information in shared decision making prior to TJA to counsel patients about the benefits of preoperative antiviral treatment even in the presence of hepatic fibrosis.