- 1Betty and Guy Beatty Center for Integrated Research Inova Health System Falls Church VA.
- 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology The Johns Hopkins Hospital Baltimore MD.
- 3Center for Liver Diseases Department of Medicine Inova Fairfax Medical Campus Falls Church VA.
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In the United States, chronic viral hepatitis B and C (CHB and CHC), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) are the main causes of liver deaths attributable to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis. Our aim was to assess the changes in the rates of mortality and years of potential life lost (YLL) for HCC and cirrhosis due to different liver diseases. We used multiple-cause mortality data (2007-2017) from the National Center for Health Statistics. Annual percentage change (APC) in age-standardized death rate per 100,000 (ASDR) and age-standardized years of life lost per 100,000 (ASYLLR) were calculated. In the United States in 2017, there were 2,797,265 deaths with 73,424 liver deaths, contributing to 1,467,742 of YLL. Of the liver deaths, HCC was noted in 12,169 (16.6%) and cirrhosis in 60,111 (82.0%). CHC was responsible for 50.4% of HCC deaths; NAFLD, 35.4%; HBV, 6.0%; ALD, 5.4%; and others, 2.8%. NAFLD was responsible for 48.9% of cirrhosis deaths; ALD, 34.7%; CHC, 12.3%; CHB, 0.9%; and others, 3.2%. Between 2007 and 2017, the increase in ASDR for HCC due to ALD and NAFLD accelerated after 2014 (APC, 11.38% and 6.55%, respectively) whereas CHC stabilized (APC, 0.63%; P = 0.272) after 2011. The increase in ASYLLR of HCC escalated after 2014 for ALD and NAFLD (APC, 12.12% and 6.15%, respectively) and leveled out for CHC after 2012 (APC, -1.05%; P = 0.056). Furthermore, the highest annual increase in ASDR and ASYLLR for cirrhosis was due to ALD (APC, 3.24% and 3.34%, respectively) followed by NAFLD (APC, 1.23% and 0.49%, respectively). Conclusion: Over the past decade, ASDR and ASYLLR due to ALD and NAFLD have been increasing in the United States. The rising burden of HCC and cirrhosis are primarily driven by NAFLD and ALD.