1 Department of Internal Medicine, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 125 Paterson Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA; Department of Medicine, 125 Paterson Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.
2 Department Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 125 Paterson Street, Suite 5100B, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) occurs in patients with acute-on-chronic liver disease. It has a wide progression of symptoms, with its initial presentation being subtle. The symptoms of HE mainly affect mental status, the musculoskeletal system, and mood/behavior. Its severity ranges from minor disturbances in sleep-wake cycle to the patient being comatose. HE is categorized based on 4 main features: the underlying disease, the severity of manifestations, the time course, and whether precipitating factors are present. The severity of the manifestations is classically identified using the West Haven Criteria. There are several other clinical tests, but they require further validation.