1 The Bariatric and Metabolic Institute, AdventHealth Tampa, Tampa, Florida.
2 The Bariatric and Metabolic Institute, AdventHealth Tampa, Tampa, Florida. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely linked to the metabolic syndrome and is highly prevalent in bariatric patients. The criterion standard to diagnose NAFLD is a liver biopsy specifically to detect inflammatory changes characteristic of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Technologic advancements will improve the accuracy of current noninvasive modalities. Modification of risk factors via food management is important to prevent the progression of NAFLD to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Several clinical trials are underway for pharmacologic treatment of NAFLD; currently the mainstay of treatment is insulin sensitizers and vitamin E. There is strong evidence bariatric surgery improves biochemical and histologic features of NAFLD and therefore, bariatric surgery should be considered as a treatment of NAFLD in patients with obesity. Gastric bypass exhibits antilipogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties in the livers of laboratory animals; thereby, providing a unique window to study regulation of body adiposity and insulin resistance.