1 Liver Institute of Virginia, Bon Secours Mercy Health, Richmond, VA, USA.
Patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) can develop progressive fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients with chronic HBV and cirrhosis are at risk of developing hepatic decompensation and have high mortality without antiviral therapy and/or liver transplantation. Treatment of chronic HBV with antiviral therapy is indicated in all patients with cirrhosis whatever the HBe-antigen status and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), so that hepatic decompensation can be prevented. Initiating antiviral therapy in patients with decompensated cirrhosis can improve liver function, Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores, as well as the need for liver transplantation and mortality. Patients with chronic HBV and cirrhosis who do not respond to antiviral therapy with normalization of ALT may have a co-existent liver disorder. One of the most common co-existent liver disorders present in patients with chronic HBV is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Patients with chronic HBV, NAFLD and cirrhosis may be at risk of developing decompensated cirrhosis and require a liver transplant. If patients with chronic HBV require liver transplantation, infection of the liver graft with HBV can be prevented with antiviral therapy.