1 Eugene McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-8591, USA. Electronic address: Julia.Kozlitina@UTSouthwestern.edu.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is strongly associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome, but genetic factors also contribute to disease susceptibility. Human genetic studies have identified several common genetic variants contributing to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease initiation and progression. These findings have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and opened up new avenues for the development of therapeutic interventions. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge about the genetic determinants of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, focusing on the most robustly validated genetic risk factors and on recently discovered modifiers of disease progression.