1 Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Saint Peter's University Hospital/Rutgers - RWJ Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org.
2 Division of Gastroenterology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA.
3 Department of Internal Medicine, Greenville Memorial Hospital, Greenville, SC, USA.
4 Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Newark University Hospital/Rutgers - New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA.
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS) might be utilized as a salvage option for hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), while randomized controlled trials are pending and real-world contemporary data on inpatient mortality is lacking.
METHODS: We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study from the National Inpatient Sample from 2005 to 2014. We included all adult patients admitted with HRS and cirrhosis, using ICD 9-CM codes. We excluded cases with variceal bleeding, Budd-Chiari, end-stage renal disease, liver transplant and transfers to acute-care facilities. TIPS' association with inpatient mortality was assessed using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression, as well as exact-matching, thus mitigating for TIPS selection bias. The exact-matched analysis was repeated among TIPS-only versus dialysis-only patients.
RESULTS: A total of 79,354 patients were included. Nine hundred eighteen (1.2%) underwent TIPS. Between TIPS and non-TIPS groups, mean age (58 years) and gender (65% males) were similar. Overall mortality was 18% in TIPS and 48% in dialysis-only cases (n = 10,379; 13.1%). Ninety six (10.5%) TIPS patients underwent dialysis. In-hospital mortality in TIPS patients was twice less likely than in non-TIPS patients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.43, 95% CI 0.30-0.62; p < 0.001), with similar results in matched analysis [exact-matched (em) OR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.17-0.89; p < 0.024; groups = 96; unweighted n = 463]. Head-to-head comparison showed that TIPS-only patients were 3.3 times less likely to succumb inpatient versus dialysis-only patients (contrast aOR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.46; p < 0.001), with similar findings post-matching (emOR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.15-0.33; p < 0.001; groups = 54, unweighted n = 1457).
CONCLUSIONS: Contemporary, real-world data reveal that TIPS on its own, and when compared to dialysis, is associated with decreased inpatient mortality when utilized in non-bleeders-HRS patients. Further randomized studies are needed to establish the long-term benefit of TIPS in these patients.