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Ramucirumab (Cyramza®), a fully human anti-VEGFR-2 monoclonal antibody, has been approved as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and α-fetoprotein levels ≥ 400 ng/mL who have been treated with sorafenib. Ramucirumab significantly prolonged overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) relative to placebo in this population in the randomized, double-blind phase 3 REACH 2 trial. These benefits were seen in key prespecified subgroups based on demographic and disease characteristics. Ramucirumab had an acceptable tolerability profile and manageable safety profile in these patients, with the majority of treatment-related adverse events being mild or moderate in severity. The safety profile of ramucirumab was consistent with that expected for agents targeting the VEGF/VEGFR axis. Currently, ramucirumab is the only therapy specifically tested in patients with α-fetoprotein levels ≥ 400 ng/mL, which is associated with an aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Therefore, ramucirumab is an important treatment option for patients with HCC and α-fetoprotein levels ≥ 400 ng/mL who have been treated with sorafenib.