1 Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address: email@example.com.
2 CRC "A. M. and A. Migliavacca" Center for the Study of Liver Disease, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
3 Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Sorbonne Universités, Université Paris Descartes, Université Paris Diderot, Université Paris, Paris, France; Functional Genomics of Solid Tumors, USPC, Université Paris Descartes, Université Paris Diderot, Université Paris, Paris, France; Service d'hépatologie, Hôpital Jean Verdier, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Seine-Saint-Denis, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Bondy, France; Unité de Formation et de Recherche Santé Médecine et Biologie Humaine, Université Paris 13, Communauté d'Universités et Etablissements Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highest in East Asia and Africa, although its incidence and mortality are rapidly rising in the United States and Europe. With the implementation of hepatitis B vaccination and hepatitis C treatment programmes worldwide, the epidemiology of HCC is shifting away from a disease predominated by viral hepatitis - an increasing proportion of cases are now attributable to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Surveillance using ultrasound, with or without alpha-fetoprotein, every 6?months has been associated with improved early detection and improved overall survival; however, limitations in implementation lead to a high proportion of HCC being detected at late stages in clinical practice. Herein, we review the current state of HCC surveillance and highlight areas for future research, including improved risk stratification of at-risk patients, surveillance tools with higher sensitivity and specificity for early HCC, and interventions to increase surveillance utilisation.