1 Hôpital Paul-Brousse, Centre Hépato-Biliaire, Villejuif, F-94800, France.
2 Recanati/Miller Transplantation Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: Myron.firstname.lastname@example.org.
3 Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery, Penn Transplant Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
It would be impossible to summarise all of the significant developments in the surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), even just over the past year, in a manuscript of this scope. Thus, we have selected topics for discussion that are the subject of current controversy and have attempted to present balanced points of view. Hepatic resection and transplantation are both mature modalities, and for the most part technical advances and improvements in candidate selection are incremental. The ability to readily cure hepatitis C stands out as the most impactful development in the field over recent years, especially in Western countries where hepatitis C has long been the chief aetiology underlying HCC and a predictor of poor outcomes after surgery, but its full implications remain to be clarified. The rising incidence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related HCC and what it means with regard to surgical HCC management is an area of great current interest. With advancing technology, non-surgical locoregional treatments are gaining increasing application as potentially curative therapies. In addition, the advances in molecular and genomic assessment of HCC hold promise for personalising treatment and prognostication. The possible role of immunotherapy as an adjuvant to resection is being aggressively investigated. While liver surgery maintains an important role, the care of patients with HCC is more and more a team effort and needs to take place in the context of a well-integrated interdisciplinary programme to achieve the best outcomes for patients.