1 Department of Epidemiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA.
Increases in opioid misuse and injection drug use have resulted in a rise in acute cases of hepatitis B. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies to determine the effect (pooled odds ratio) of interventions to increase hepatitis Bvaccination completion in people who inject drugs (PWID). Odds ratios from the included studies were combined to create a pooled odds ratio (OR) using the Inverse Heterogeneity Model. Eleven studies met the eligibility criterion of having a randomized intervention to increase hepatitis B virus vaccination completion among PWID. The odds of vaccine completion in the intervention group were greater than in the control/comparison group (pooled OR, 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-5.99). Subgroup analysis indicated that financial incentives were most effective (OR, 7.01; 95% CI, 2.88-17.06), followed by accelerated vaccine schedules (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.14-3.14). Interventions using financial incentives and accelerated vaccine schedules are moderately effective at increasing hepatitis B vaccination completion in PWID.