1 University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
2 University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
3 Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Among individuals with HIV infection, liver disease remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, even with the availability of agents that cure hepatitis C infection and suppress hepatitis B replication. The causes of liver disease are multifaceted and continue to evolve as the population ages and new etiologies arise. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatitis viruses such as A, D, and E have emerged even as hepatitis C has receded. Newer antiretroviral agents may increase risk of weight gain and subsequent fatty infiltration, and prior use of nucleotide-based therapies may continue to impact liver health. Several barriers including economics, social stigma, and psychiatric disease impact identification of liver disease, as well as management and treatment interventions. Hepatocellular carcinoma is emerging as a more common and late-diagnosed complication in those with HIV infection and liver disease.