1 Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Virginia Commonwealth University and McGuire VA Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America.
2 West Coast Metabolomics Center, University of California, Davis, California, United States of America.
3 Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America.
Cirrhosis can alter several metabolic pathways. Metabolomics could prognosticate outcomes like hepatic encephalopathy (HE), transplant, hospitalization and death.
Determine changes in serum and urine metabolomics in cirrhotics who develop outcomes.
Cirrhotic outpatients underwent data, serum/urine collection and were followed for 90 days. Demographics, cirrhosis details and medications were collected. Metabolomics was performed on urine/serum using GC/MS with subsequent bioinformatics analyses (ChemRICH, MetaMAPP and PLS-DA). Logistic regression adjusting for covariates (demographics, alcohol etiology, prior HE, PPI, SBP prophylaxis, rifaximin/lactulose) were performed and ROC curves comparing MELD to adjusted serum & urine metabolites were created.
211 patients gave serum, of which 64 were hospitalized, 19 developed HE, 13 were transplanted and 11 died. 164 patients gave urine of which 56 were hospitalized, 18 developed HE, 12 were transplanted and 11 died. Metabolomics: Saturated fatty acids, amino acids and bioenergetics-related metabolites differentiated patients with/without outcomes. After regression, 232, 228, 284 and 229 serum metabolites were significant for hospitalization, HE, death and transplant. In urine 290, 284, 227 & 285 metabolites were significant for hospitalization, HE, death and transplant respectively. AUC was higher for serum metabolites vs MELD for HE (0.85 vs.0.76), death (0.99 vs.0.88), transplant (0.975 vs.0.94) and hospitalizations (0.84 vs.0.83). Similarly, urinary metabolite AUC was also higher than MELD for HE (0.87 vs.0.72), death (0.92 vs 0.86), transplant (0.99 vs.0.90) and hospitalizations (0.89 vs.0.84).
In this exploratory study, serum and metabolites focused on lipid, bioenergetics and amino acid metabolism are altered in cirrhotics who develop negative outcomes.