Data on recurrence of hepatitis D virus (HDV) and its long-term impact on liver transplant (LT) are limited. In this study, we investigated the incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the long-term effect of postoperative HDV recurrence HDV coinfection in our liver transplant patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
Between 2004 and 2018, all patients with LT because of HBV (n = 361; 37.3%) were reviewed, and those with HBV and HDV coinfection (n = 104; 30% of all HBV patients) were enrolled in our study. All patients received post-transplant combination therapy with nucleos(t)ide analogue and antihepatitis B immunoglobulins. Breakthrough infection was defined as reemergence of HBV DNA or hepatitis B surface antigen during postoperative treatment. In case of recurrence, another oral nucleos(t)ide analogue was added and antihepatitis B immunoglobulins were stopped.
During the study period, the frequency of HDV (+) was decreased (41% to 14%). Median follow-up time was 82 months (range, 1-274 months). Post LT survival and HBV recurrence were 97% (n = 15) and 13.4%, respectively. Only 15 patients (14%) developed breakthrough infection. There was no predictive factor for recurrent HDV infection, including demographics data and concomitant hepatocellular carcinoma (P = .73). Mortality was similar between patients with and without recurrence (2.2% vs 7.1%, P = .35) CONCLUSIONS: Patients who received transplants for hepatitis B and D virus cirrhosis had favorable prognosis and good long-term results despite recurrent infection. Close follow-up of patients and effective postoperative viral suppression with appropriate medications seems to be favorable for both prevention and management of recurrence and provides comparable outcome with patients without recurrence.