1 Division of Nephrology, Foundation IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Italy.
2 Hepatology Section, Department of Medicine, Centro de Educacion Medica e Investigaciones Clinicas Norberto Quirno ''CEMIC'' , Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
3 Hepatology and Liver Transplant Unit, Hospital Universitario Austral , Pilar, Argentina.
4 Latin American Liver Research, Educational and Awareness Network (LALREAN) , Pilar, Argentina.
Introduction: Hepatitis B virus is an important cause of liver disease and has numerous extra-hepatic manifestations. HBV leads to important morbidity and mortality in the general population and recent evidence suggests a role of HBV in the incidence and progression of chronic kidney disease. Areas covered: The mechanisms underlying the link between HBV and CKD remain unclear. Nucleos(t)ide analogues for the antiviral treatment of HBV are currently available; these drugs are provided with high efficacy even in patients with CKD. Expert opinion: A recent meta-analysis of clinical studies showed that HBV results in a greater risk of CKD in the general population. According to an updated review (studies were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database), we retrieved six clinical studies (n = 1,034,773 unique patients), adjusted RR, 1.41 (95% CI, 1.09; 1.82, P < 0.001). The significant heterogeneity observed precluded more definitive conclusions. Various mechanisms have been cited to explain the greater risk of CKD among HBsAg positive carriers. Novel evidence shows that untreated HBV and therapy with nucleos(t)ide analogues are associated with increased and decreased risk of end-stage renal disease in CKD population, respectively. We recommend that patients with HBV are assessed for kidney function and urinary changes at baseline and over the follow-up.