1 Division of Gastroenterology (Gastrocentro), School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Carlos Chagas n°420, 13083-878 Campinas, Brazil.
2 Division of Gastroenterology (Gastrocentro), School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Carlos Chagas n°420, 13083-878 Campinas, Brazil; Division of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Gastroenterology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Avenue Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar n°255, Instituto Central, 9159 Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Recently, changes in acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnostic criteria have been proposed (ICA-AKI criteria). However, in Brazil there is a paucity of data and analyses that evaluate AKI in patients with cirrhosis and determine the impact of the implemented AKI criteria changes. Therefore, this study sought to evaluate the incidence of AKI in patients with cirrhosis; to evaluate the agreement between traditional and ICA-AKI criteria; and to assess its clinical and laboratory characteristics, etiologies, risk factors and outcomes.
This is a prospective cohort study in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and acute decompensation. The total number of hospitalizations was evaluated using the PWP statistical model for recurring events; P values<0.05 were considered significant.
A total of 154 admissions of 75 patients were included in the study. Among the hospitalizations, 89 (57.79%) met the ICA-AKI criteria. There was substantial agreement between both AKI classifications (Kappa 0.7293). The main etiology of AKI was pre-renal (59.55%), followed by renal (26.96%) and hepatorenal syndrome (10.11%). A multivariate analysis uncovered risk factors for ICA-AKI, including the MELD score (P=0.0162, RR:1.055, 95% CI:1.010-1.101) and the use of furosemide (P=0.001,RR:2.360, 95%CI:1.417-3.931). A univariate analysis found an association between in-hospital mortality and serum creatinine (sCr)≥1.5mg/dL(P=0.0373), MELD (P=0.0296), bilirubin (P=0.0064), and infection (P=0.0045), while in the multivariate analysis, the bilirubin levels (P=0.0030, RR:1.077, 95% CI: 1.025-1.130) and the presence of shock (P=0.0002,RR:8.511, 95% CI: 2.746-26.377) were associated with in-hospital mortality. Among the hospitalizations with AKI, death was significantly associated with non-response to treatment and dialysis. Initial stage 1A-AKI had lower in-hospital mortality than stage 1B-AKI.
AKI incidence was high in this cohort of patients with decompensated cirrhosis, and substantial agreement between AKI definitions was observed. In-hospital mortality was associated with worse liver function, AKI, infection and the presence of shock. Also, sCr>1,5mg/dL remained an important prognostic factor.