1 Department of Surgery, UPMC Presbyterian, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2 Department of Surgery, UPMC Presbyterian, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
3 University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
4 UPMC Liver Cancer Center, Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Numerous studies have argued health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures to be prognostic of survival in patients with chronic disease processes including cancer; however, only a few small studies have evaluated HRQoL changes in the setting of oncologic resections. The objectives of the present study were to investigate factors predicting HRQoL, the change in HRQoL over time, and HRQoL prognostic value in patients undergoing surgical resection of hepatic malignancies.
We administered the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue, and Brief Pain Inventory to 128 patients with primary and metastatic hepatic malignancies enrolled between January 2008 to November 2011 and November 2013 to June 2015. Quality of life was obtained at the baseline, 4, 8, and 12 mo, using HRQoL questionnaires.
The mean age of all patients included was 61 y, 42.6% had hepatocellular carcinoma, and 50.7% had metastatic colorectal carcinoma. HRQoL decreased from baseline at the 4-mo follow-up but stabilized to preoperative values at 8 and 12 mo. Depressive symptoms (P < 0.001), pain (P = 0.032), and fatigue (P < 0.001) were associated with HRQoL before surgery. Variables associated with HRQoL at 8 mo included extrahepatic recurrence (P = 0.002), depressive symptoms (P < 0.001), pain (P < 0.001), fatigue (P < 0.001), tumor macrovascular (P = 0.011), and microvascular invasion (P = 0.003). Using Cox regression and adjusting for demographics and disease-specific factors, preoperative HRQoL was significantly associated with overall survival.
HRQoL is independently associated with survival in patients with liver malignancies undergoing surgical resection. Major curative liver surgery can be performed with short-term worsening of HRQoL but long-term improvement and stabilization in overall quality of life for patients with cancer.