1 The Institute of Hepatology London, Foundation for Liver Research, 111 Coldharbour Lane, London, SE5 9NT, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org.
2 Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK. email@example.com.
The rapidity of the increase in the global burden of liver disease covered in this review with estimates worldwide of 2 million deaths from cirrhosis and with no signs of effective controls being introduced for two of the main causes, namely, excess alcohol consumption and obesity, is of great concern. The 25% prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in many population groups and the recent description of primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC) in obese subjects without underlying severe fibrosis/cirrhosis also raises many questions. In addition, covered in this review are more encouraging areas including techniques for machine preservation of donor organs enabling previously marginal organs to be used for transplantation. Greater knowledge of gut microbiome and gut bacterial translocation is defining the inflammatory reaction underlying multi-organ failure in decompensated cirrhosis. The gut microbiome also influences the response of HCC patients to the new check-point inhibitor drugs which restore immunological responses of its host.