1 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Loma Linda Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USA.
2 Southern California Liver Center, San Diego, CA, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Chronic hepatitis B is a global health problem affecting approximately 350 million to 400 million individuals worldwide, and mother to child transmission remains the major mode of transmission. Approximately 50% of chronically infected individuals acquire infection, either perinatally or early in childhood, predominantly in areas where hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic. Management of HBV in pregnancy presents a unique set of challenges. All infants born of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers should receive postexposure immune prophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin and HBV vaccination within 24 hours of birth and need close follow-up for the first few years of life.