1 Harm Reduction International, London, UK.
Despite the fact that a large portion of the prison population is made up of people who use and inject drugs, harm reduction continues to be extremely limited in prison settings. This article begins with a review of drug-related incarceration, drug use in prisons, and HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence among prisoners globally. It presents the scientific evidence, alongside legal and economic arguments supporting the provision of harm reduction to people who use drugs, both inside and outside of prisons. The article then provides a global overview of the availability, accessibility, and quality of harm reduction services in prisons-specifically needle and syringe programs; opioid substitution therapy; provision of the opioid agonist naloxone; and diagnosis, treatment, and care for HIV, HCV, and tuberculosis.