1 Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Thomas Jefferson University, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
2 Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hahnemann University Hospital, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
3 Division of Gastroenterology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address: Kenneth.Rothstein@uphs.upenn.edu.
INTRODUCTION AND AIM:
The evaluation to determine the cause of hepatic encephalopathy consists primarily of laboratory testing to rule out infections and metabolic causes. Despite lack of evidence, it is a common practice amongst clinicians to obtain a head CT as part of their initial evaluation in a cirrhotic presenting with recurrent episodes of hepatic encephalopathy.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Medical records of all cirrhotic adults admitted to a tertiary care hospital from 2007 to 2010 with hepatic encephalopathy were reviewed.
In 67 patients, there were 147 episodes of hepatic encephalopathy where a head CT was performed. Six CTs had intracranial findings explaining hepatic encephalopathy. Two patients had focal neurologic findings on physical exam with no history of trauma, one had a history of trauma with no focal neurologic deficits and two had both a history of trauma and focal neurologic findings. Only one case revealed an intracranial hemorrhage with neither a preceding history of trauma nor positive neurological signs. The overall prevalence of intracranial findings in hepatic encephalopathy was 4% (6/147) and 0.6% (1/142) in the absence of trauma or focal neurologic findings. Laboratory and clinical variables including mean levels of ammonia, sodium, creatinine, bilirubin, albumin, platelet count, INR, encephalopathy grade and MELD score did not have a statistically significant impact on head CT findings (P > .05).
In conclusion, the yield of a head CT in determining the cause of change in mental status is extremely low in patients with cirrhosis who present with recurrent hepatic encephalopathy.