1a Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, Inc , Bedminster , NJ , USA.
2b Formerly of Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, Inc , Bedminster , NJ , USA.
3c University of Washington School of Pharmacy , Seattle , WA , USA.
4d Boston Strategic Partners, Inc Health Economics and Outcomes Research , Boston , MA , USA.
Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS) is characterized by renal failure in patients with advanced chronic liver disease (CLD) and is the leading cause of hospitalizations in CLD. This study examines the clinical and economic burden, outcomes, and unmet need of HRS treatment in US hospitals.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on a large electronic health records database (Cerner HealthFacts) with records for hospitalized HRS patients from January 2009-June 2015. Demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and economic outcomes were analyzed. Prognostic indicators of cirrhosis, kidney injury, end-stage liver disease, and acute-on-chronic liver failure were used to determine mortality risk.
A total of 2,542 patients hospitalized with HRS were identified (average age = 57.9 years, 61.8% males, 74.2% Caucasian), with an average total hospital charge of $91,504 per patient and a mean length of stay (LOS) of 30.5 days. The mortality rate was 36.9% with 8.9% of patients discharged to hospice. Of all patients, 1,660 patients had acute kidney injury, 859 with Stage 3 disease, and 26.7% had dialysis. The 30-day readmission rate was 33.1%, 41% of which were unplanned. Nearly one-third of study patients had commercial insurance (30.2%), followed by Medicare (29.9%); hospital charges varied by LOS, receipt of dialysis, and discharge status. Regression analysis demonstrated that HRS costs are associated with LOS, dialysis, and hospital mortality.
HRS is associated with poor outcomes and high hospital costs. Analysis of HRS cost drivers demonstrated an unmet need for additional treatment options to improve outcomes in this patient population.