1 Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, USA.
2 Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, USA.
Trans-arterial radioembolization (TARE) with Y-90 microspheres is an endovascular, liver-directed therapy suitable for treatment of locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) often as a way to reduce tumor size and bridge patients to resection or liver transplant. Opdivo®, or nivolumab, a programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor, is an immunotherapeutic drug approved in September 2017 for the treatment of HCC in patients who have received prior sorafenib. We report on a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma with right and left portal vein involvement, bony metastasis, and possible lung metastasis. The patient showed a significant response following consecutive treatment with TARE, sorafenib, and nivolumab. Our case suggests that TARE, sorafenib, and nivolumab may have a synergistic effect on the immune response to HCC.