1 Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
2 Division of Medical Oncology, Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Stanford University, CA, Stanford, USA.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and its incidence is rapidly increasing. Cirrhosis, and the dreaded complication of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are the major drivers of morbidity and mortality in NASH. Conventional understanding has been that chronic liver damage leads to a cycle of cell death, regeneration and fibrosis during which HCC precursor cells undergo malignant transformation and lead to cancer initiation.