1 Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Baylor College of Medicine, 7200 Cambridge Street, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
2 Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Baylor College of Medicine, 7200 Cambridge Street, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. email@example.com.
3 U.S. Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:
To discuss current knowledge and recent findings regarding the epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the USA.
The US incidence rate of HCC is increasing, although the pace may have somewhat slowed since 2010. In 2012, incidence rates of HCC in Hispanics surpassed those of Asians. The recent epidemiological changes in major risk factors for HCC include increasing hepatitis C virus post-sustained virologic response, suppressed hepatitis B virus on nucleoside analogues, and alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has the greatest proportion of the burden of the main risk factors for HCC in the USA, followed by alcoholic liver disease, and hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infections. This review focuses on current knowledge regarding the recent epidemiological trends in HCC, with an emphasis on future directions.