1 Thoracic and GI Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
2 Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Surgery, New Brunswick, NJ.
3 NCI CCR Liver Cancer Program.
Although patients undergo procedures with curative intent for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), up to 70% of patients may have disease recurrence in the liver at 5 years. Thus far, no therapy has proven to be effective in the adjuvant setting. Here, we discuss the application of immune based therapies in the adjuvant setting for HCC focusing on the underlying rationale for immunotherapies, which patients may benefit from an immune based therapy and what type of immune therapy should be implemented.