1 a Medical School , University of Western Australia , Nedlands , Australia.
2 b Department of Hepatology and Liver Transplant Unit , Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital , Nedlands , Australia.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide and is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most frequent malignant liver tumor. The increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes is influencing the epidemiology of HCC with the most dramatic increases in NAFLD-related HCC seen in Western countries. Although cirrhosis is the major risk factor for HCC in NAFLD, there is increasing recognition that NAFLD-HCC occurs in the absence of cirrhosis. Areas covered: The epidemiology of NAFLD related HCC and its impact on changing the incidence of HCC globally. We overview risk factors for NAFLD-HCC in the presence and absence of cirrhosis and examine trends in liver transplantation (LT) related to NAFLD-HCC. Expert commentary: The incidence of NAFLD-related cirrhosis will continue to rise globally in parallel with risk factors of obesity and diabetes. Consequently, NAFLD-related HCC will become an increasingly important cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality and a common indication for LT worldwide. Further identification of risk factors for NAFLD-HCC and effective treatments for NAFLD are required to reduce this future burden of disease.