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Cabozantinib is an inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) with roles in cancer pathogenesis. This review focuses on data relevant to the use of cabozantinib tablets (Cabometyx®) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients who have been previously treated with the multi-RTK inhibitor sorafenib, an indication for which cabozantinib tablets are approved in the EU and USA. Approval of cabozantinib in this setting was based largely on the findings of CELESTIAL, a phase 3 trial in adults with advanced HCC who had previously received sorafenib, had progressive disease after at least one systemic therapy and had received up to two systemic treatments for their advanced disease. Compared with placebo in this study, cabozantinib prolonged both overall survival and progression-free survival, with these findings largely unaffected by patient/disease characteristics. The tolerability profile of cabozantinib in CELESTIAL was acceptable and consistent with that of other multi-RTK inhibitors, with adverse events that were manageable with dose modification and supportive care. Thus, cabozantinib is a welcome additional treatment option for use in adults with HCC previously treated with sorafenib.