School of Medicine, University of Colorado-Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.
Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston, TX, USA.
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado-Anschutz Medical Campus, 12700 E. 19th Avenue, Mail Stop B168, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA. Kristine.firstname.lastname@example.org.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:
Here, we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the general population, discuss HIV-specific differences in NAFLD pathogenesis, and summarize what is known regarding differences in NAFLD by race/ethnicity and sex.
The reported prevalence of NAFLD among people living with HIV varies by age, body mass index, comorbidity, and method of NAFLD diagnosis, but is generally thought to be greater among HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected populations. Minorities and women tend to experience poorer HIV treatment outcomes (Meditz et al. J Infect Dis. 203(4):442-51, 2011; Beer et al. Medicine (Baltimore). 95(13):e 3171, 2016; Gant et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 66(40):1065-72, 2017; Millett et al. Lancet. 380(9839):341-8, 2012; Wejnert et al. J Infect Dis. 213(5):776-83, 2016), and are at the greatest risk for significant weight gain with HIV treatment (Erlandson et al. Medicine (Baltimore). 95(46):e 5399, 2016). Thus, women and minorities living with HIV may be at a higher risk of developing NAFLD and progressive liver disease. Disparities in the diagnosis, progression, and prognosis of NAFLD and HIV-associated NAFLD may be, in part, explained by genetic and sex differences; however, data is limited.