Hepato-Neuro Laboratory, CRCHUM, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H2X 0A9, Canada.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome that occurs during chronic liver disease (CLD). While ammonia and other precipitating factors in liver disease including inflammation, bile acids, oxidative stress, and lactate play a role in the pathogenesis of HE, the exact mechanism that leads to HE is not fully understood. Notably, accumulating evidence points toward a synergic effect rather than independent actions among precipitating factors that contributes to the development and severity of HE in CLD. Hence, this review is aimed to briefly discuss the single and synergic interplay of pathological factors in the progression and severity of HE.