Department of Internal Medicine, Banner University Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
Nursing and Healthcare Innovation, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.
Department of Interventional Radiology, Banner University Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
Transplant and Advanced Liver Disease Center, Banner University Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a well-recognized complication of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate incidence and predictors of post-TIPS HE necessitating hospital admission in a non-clinical trial setting.
We performed a retrospective cohort study identifying 273 consecutive patients undergoing TIPS from 2010 to 2015 for any indication; 210 met inclusion/exclusion criteria. The primary endpoint was incidence of post-TIPS HE defined as encephalopathy with no other identifiable cause requiring hospitalization within 90 days of TIPS. Clinical demographics and procedural variables were collected and analyzed to determine predictors of readmission for post-TIPS HE. Categorical variables were analyzed using Fisher's exact test; continuous variables were compared using Levene's t-test and student's t-test; P < 0.05, significant.
Forty-two of 210 patients (20%) developed post-TIPS HE requiring hospitalization within 90 days. On analysis of cohorts (post-TIPS HE vs. no post-TIPS HE): non-white race (31.0% vs. 17.5%, P = 0.022) and increased hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) difference during TIPS (10.5 vs. 8.9 mmHg, P = 0.030) were associated with an increased incidence of HE requiring readmission within 90 days.
HE remains a common complication of TIPS. Non-Caucasian race is a significant clinical demographic associated with increased risk for readmission. Independent of initial or final HVPG, HVPG difference appears to be a significant modifiable technical risk factor. In the absence of clear preventative strategies for post-TIPS encephalopathy, non-Caucasians with HVPG reductions >9 mmHg may require targeted follow up evaluation to prevent hospital readmission.