Department of Internal Medicine I, Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Endocrinology, Medical University Innsbruck, Austria.
Department of Internal Medicine I, Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Endocrinology, Medical University Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address: email@example.com.
The intestinal and hepatobiliary tract exhibits host-specific commensal colonization. The resident microbiota has emerged as a key player in intestinal and hepatic diseases. Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (ALD/NAFLD), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), liver cirrhosis, and some of their clinical complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE), have been linked to a microbial signature, as also observed for severe liver inflammation in alcoholic hepatitis. In turn, the liver impacts, and communicates with, the microbiota through hepatic mediators, such as bile acids or inflammatory signals. Therefore, a liver-microbiome bidirectional crosstalk appears to be critical in health and various liver diseases and could be therapeutically targeted, such as by fecal microbiota transplantation.