1Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Virginia Commonwealth University and McGuire VA Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia.
Altered gut microbiome is associated with systemic inflammation and cirrhosis decompensation. However, the correlation of the oral microbiome with inflammation in cirrhosis is unclear.
Evaluate the oral microbiome in cirrhosis and compare with stool microbiome.
Cirrhotic outpatients [with/without hepatic encephalopathy (HE)] and controls underwent stool/saliva microbiome analysis (for composition and function) and also systemic inflammatory evaluation. 90-day liver-related hospitalizations were recorded. Salivary inflammation was studied using Th1 cytokines/secretory IgA, histatins and lysozyme in a subsequent group.
102 cirrhotics (43 prior-HE) and 32 age-matched controls were included. On PCO, stool and saliva microbiome clustered far apart showing differences between sites as a whole. Salivary microbiome: With prior-HE, relative abundance of autochthonous families decreased while potentially pathogenic ones (Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae) increased in saliva. Endotoxin-related predicted functions were significantly higher in cirrhotic saliva. Stool microbiome: Relative autochthonous taxa abundance reduced in prior-HE, along with increased Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae. Cirrhotic stool microbiota demonstrated a significantly higher correlation with systemic inflammation compared to saliva microbiota on correlation networks.
38 patients were hospitalized within 90 days. Their salivary dysbiosis was significantly worse and predicted this outcome independent of cirrhosis severity. Salivary inflammation: was studied in an additional 86 age-matched subjects (43 controls/43 cirrhotics); significantly higher IL-6/IL-1β, secretory IgA and lower lysozyme, and histatins 1 and 5 were found in cirrhotics compared to controls.
Dysbiosis, represented by reduction in autochthonous bacteria, is present in both saliva and stool in cirrhosis patients compared to controls. Cirrhotic patients have impaired salivary defenses and worse inflammation. Salivary dysbiosis was greater in cirrhotics who developed 90-day hospitalizations. These findings could represent a global mucosal-immune interface change in cirrhosis.