Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI.
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Henry Ford Health System and Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI.
Center for Health Policy and Health Services Research, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI.
Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
Department of Epidemiology& Health Services Research, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA.
Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente-Northwest, Portland, OR.
Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente-Hawai'i,, Honolulu, HI.
Sustained virological response (SVR) to treatment for chronic hepatitis C (HCV) may improve short-term glucose control among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the long-term impact remains largely unknown. We used data from the Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study to investigate the impact of SVR on long-term trends in HbA1c in patients with T2D.
"Index date" was defined as the date of treatment initiation (treated patients) or HCV diagnosis (untreated patients). To address treatment selection bias, we used a propensity score approach. We used a piecewise, linear-spline, mixed-effects model to evaluate changes in HbA1c over a five-year period.
Our sample included 384 HCV patients with T2D (192 untreated, 192 treated, with SVR or treatment failure [TF]). After adjusting for BMI, HbA1c was stable among untreated and TF patients. In SVR patients, Hb1Ac trajectories evolved in three phases: 1) index through 6 months post-index, average HbA1c decreased significantly from 7.7-5.4% per 90 days (p<0.001); 2) 6-30 months post-index, HbA1c rebounded at a rate of 1.5% every 90 days (p=0.003); and 3) from 30 months onward, HbA1c stabilized at an average level of 7.9 (p-value =0.34). Results from an analysis restricted to patients receiving direct-acting antivirals were consistent with the main findings.
Successful HCV treatment among patients with T2D significantly reduces HbA1 shortly after treatment, but these decreases are not sustained long-term. Less than three years after SVR, HbA1c rebounds to levels similar to untreated/TF patients, and higher than recommended for type 2 diabetic maintenance.