Department of Renal Medicine, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Hepatitis C is a global health concern, with important implications in chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to its increased prevalence in this population. Patients with advanced CKD have until recently been excluded from the pivotal direct acting anti-viral (DAA) trials, which have demonstrated high virological cure numbers. Sofosbuvir-free DAAs dasabuvir, ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir with or without ribavirin, and elbasvir/grazoprevir are well-tolerated in patients with genotype 1 and 4 CHC with CKD 4 or 5 (including HD), with virologic cure rates of above 90%, in both single-arm and placebo-controlled studies. More recently a pangenotypic approach using glecaprevir and pibrentasvir has also been shown to be highly effective in CKD 4-5. With increasingly successful treatment options with minimal side-effects most hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with CKD and ESRD can be cured. Outstanding issues to be considered is how to raise the awareness of the availability of safe DAAs and excellent outcomes in CKD, and moreover to define optimal timing of treatment and address the question of HCV eradication in all stages of CKD including the dialysis population.