Section of Infectious Diseases, AIDS Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
Frank H. Netter School of Medicine, Quinnipiac University, North Haven, CT, USA.
Centre of Excellence on Research in AIDS (CERIA), University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Departments of Behavioral Medicine & Psychiatry and Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA. email@example.com.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:
To describe models of integrated and co-located care for opioid use disorder (OUD), hepatitis C (HCV), and HIV.
The design and scale-up of multidisciplinary care models that engage, retain, and treat individuals with HIV, HCV, and OUD are critical to preventing continued spread of HIV and HCV. We identified 17 models within primary care (N = 3), HIV specialty care (N = 5), opioid treatment programs (N = 6), transitional clinics (N = 2), and community-based harm reduction programs (N = 1), as well as two emerging models. Key components of such models are the provision of (1) medication-assisted treatment for OUD, (2) HIV and HCV treatment, (3) HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis, and (4) behavioral health services. Research is needed to understand differences in effectiveness between co-located and fully integrated care, combat the deleterious racial and ethnic legacies of the "War on Drugs," and inform the delivery of psychiatric care. Increased access to harm reduction services is crucial.