Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Rajavithi Hospital, College of Medicine, Rangsit University, Rajavithi Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2 Dulles, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-related Mixed Cryoglobulinemia (MC) is a unique condition with complex pathogenesis that involves HCV antigen-driven B-lymphocyte clonal proliferation and mutagenesis. Clinical spectrum of MC ranges from asymptomatic state to clinically-apparent vasculitis involving multiple organs. In the era of Direct-Acting Antiviral (DAA) therapy, patients with HCV-related MC achieve high rates of viral clearance that is commonly accompanied by an improvement in clinical symptoms as well as immunological profiles. Rituximab, either alone or in combination with DAA, has also been shown to be effective. Nevertheless, there have been limited and somewhat conflicting data, particularly over the long-term, regarding the rate and degree of clinical response of MC following DAA therapy. It appears that we have come quite a long way in the last decade with this condition. As with non-MC related HCV, undoubtedly long term outcome data will be forthcoming over the next few years. As we move forward successful therapy of HCV is not likely to be a challenge in contrast to access to therapy.