1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA; Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2Section of Surgical Oncology Research, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Department of Surgery, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
3Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ), the most recently described type III IFN, plays a crucial part by acting on specific cell types, controlling viral infections and establishing robust innate immunity against cancer. In contrast to IFN-α or IFN-γ, IFN-λ has a restricted cell response pattern, which could make this new IFN a better choice for disease targeting and reducing adverse events. Although IFN-λ is considered to have pivotal roles in cancer, viral infections and autoimmune diseases, clinical trials have only been conducted for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. In this review, we discuss the current and the potential clinical applications of IFN-λ in the context of current IFN therapy.