1Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital and The Ohio State University School of Medicine, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH 43004, United States. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, United States; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is now curable by antiviral therapy but the global burden of liver disease is unlikely to diminish without a vaccine to prevent transmission. The objective of HCV vaccination is not to induce sterilizing immunity, but instead to prevent persistent infection. One vaccine that incorporates only non-structural HCV proteins is now in phase I/II efficacy trials to test the novel concept that T cell priming alone is sufficient for protection. Evidence also suggests that antibodies contribute to infection resolution. Vaccines comprised of recombinant envelope glycoproteins targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been assessed in humans for immunogenicity. Here, we discuss current concepts in protective immunity and divergent approaches to vaccination against a highly mutable RNA virus.