Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Alameda Health System, Highland Hospital, Oakland, CA 94620, United States.
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Alameda Health System, Highland Hospital, Oakland, CA 94620, United States. firstname.lastname@example.org.
To evaluate trends and disparities in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) outcomes among Hispanic patients in the United States with a focus on tumor stage at diagnosis.
We retrospectively evaluated all Hispanic adults (age > 20) with HCC diagnosed from 2004 to 2014 using United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry data. Tumor stage was assessed by SEER-specific staging systems and whether HCC was within Milan criteria at diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression models evaluated for predictors of HCC within Milan criteria at diagnosis.
Overall, Hispanics accounted for 19.8% of all HCC (73.3% men, 60.9% had Medicare or commercial insurance, 33.5% Medicaid, and 5.6% uninsured). Thirty-eight percent of Hispanic HCC patients were within Milan criteria at diagnosis. With latter time periods, significantly more patients were diagnosed with HCC within Milan criteria, and in 2013-2014, 42.6% had HCC within Milan criteria. On multivariate regression, Hispanic males (OR vs females: 0.76, 95%CI: 0.68-0.83, P < 0.001), Hispanics > 65 years (OR vs age < 50: 0.67, 95%CI: 0.58-0.79, P < 0.001), and uninsured patients (OR vs Medicare/commercial: 0.49, 95%CI: 0.40-0.59, P <0.001) were significantly less likely to have HCC within Milan criteria at diagnosis.
While one in five HCC patients in the United States are of Hispanic ethnicity, only 38% were within Milan criteria at time of diagnosis, and thus over 60% were ineligible for liver transplantation, one of the primary curative options for HCC patients. Improved efforts at HCC screening and surveillance are needed among this group to improve early detection.