Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, MS F-76, Atlanta, GA, 30341, USA. BMomin@cdc.gov.
Division of Viral Hepatitis, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
ICF, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, MS F-76, Atlanta, GA, 30341, USA.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma, a type of primary liver cancer, and are most prevalent in people born 1945-1965. Relatively little information is available for liver cancer prevention, compared to other cancers. In this review, we provide a summary of current promising public health practices for liver cancer prevention from the literature, as well as liver cancer-related initiatives in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP).
Two types of source materials were analyzed for this review: published literature (2005-present), and current cancer plans from the NCCCP (2005-2022). A search strategy was developed to include a review of several scientific databases. Of the 73 articles identified as potentially eligible, 20 articles were eligible for inclusion in the review. Eligible articles were abstracted using a data abstraction tool. Three independent keyword searches on 65 NCCCP plans were conducted. Keyword searches within each of the plans to identify activities related to liver cancer were conducted. Relevant information was abstracted from the plans and saved in a data table.
Of the 20 eligible articles, 15 articles provided information on interventions related to liver cancer and hepatitis B or hepatitis C prevention. All 15 of the intervention articles were related to hepatitis; 13 were hepatitis B-focused, two were hepatitis C-focused, and 14 focused on Asian/Pacific Islander American populations. The independent keyword search of NCCCP plans produced 46 results for liver, 27 results for hepatitis, and 52 results for alcohol. Two plans included activities related to liver cancer. Twenty-four plans included activities related to hepatitis.
A majority of the intervention articles published focused on HBV infection in Asian/Pacific Islander American populations, and a small percentage of NCCCP plans included liver-related content. The findings from this review will inform the development of an Action Plan on liver cancer prevention for the NCCCP, which will assist programs with the adoption and uptake of promising practices for the prevention of liver cancer.