Asian Liver Center, Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 780 Welch Road, CJ 130, Palo Alto, CA, 94304-5787, USA.
Asian Liver Center, Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 780 Welch Road, CJ 130, Palo Alto, CA, 94304-5787, USA. email@example.com.
Chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) is a condition that needs ongoing care such as monitoring for liver enzymes (ALT) and HBV DNA tests in treated and untreated patients, and annual imaging evaluation for liver cancer. Although follow-up care and treatment might seem straight forward, an estimated two-thirds of those who are aware of their infection are not seeing a health care provider, and more than half of those who are eligible for treatment do not receive it. This study aimed to compile and examine studies related to the barriers of disease monitoring, treatment, and liver cancer surveillance for CHB patients in the United States (US). A total of 4439 studies on monitoring and surveillance of CHB published between 2007 and 2018 were identified through a search of electronic databases. After critical assessment, the authors included 42 studies, divided into categories: 'patient-related barriers'; 'provider-related barriers'; and 'system-related barriers'. Among the patient-related barriers, one of the most frequent factors invoked in failing to have adequate surveillance was lack of patient's knowledge. In the provider-related barrier category, a lack of disease knowledge and adherence to guidelines was frequently reported. For the system-related barrier category, the only recurrent mention was a lack of clarity in guidelines or lack of guidelines from certain national institutions. This review summarizes and highlights the need for long-term disease management improvement of chronic hepatitis B infection for patients and healthcare providers that care for them.