Institute of Cellular Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Department of Pathology, Aretaieion Hospital, Medical School, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. email@example.com.
Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
Chronic alcohol misuse and progressed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to the metabolic syndrome and resulting to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are prime causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Western industrialized countries. The incidence of HCC in NASH-cirrhosis is lower than that of HCC occuring in HCV-related or alcoholic cirrhosis. Up to 20% of cases of alcohol-associated HCC may develop in pre-cirrhotic liver while HCC is also increasingly recognised in pre-cirrhotic NASH raising questions on appropriate surveillance measures for these patient populations. The recently described steatohepatitic subtype of HCC presents with higher frequency in NAFLD compared to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) patients. This review will mainly focus on histopathology and summarize current data on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of NAFLD- and ALD-related HCC.