Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Translational Research in Hepatology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, 20089 Rozzano (MI), Italy.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Via R. Levi Montalcini 4, 20090 Pieve Emanuele (MI), Italy.
Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Humanitas Clinical & Research Center, Rozzano (MI), Italy.
The development of nucleos(t)ide analogs and direct antiviral agents has revolutionized the management of chronic infection with HBV and HCV, respectively. These regimens allow to expand treatment to virtually all infected, including those with poor hepatic reserve and those with severe comorbidities. As a result, permanent suppression of HBV and eradication of HCV has been achieved in almost all treated patients, resulting in substantial clinical benefits. In several cohorts, these successes have translated into a reduction of the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma that was more frequently observed in patients with less advanced hepatitis, whereas liver cancer was more often associated with male gender, cirrhosis, alcohol abuse and diabetes.