Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States.
Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States.
Department of Medicine, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States.
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, United States.
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Department of Medicine, Center for Liver Diseases, Inova Fairfax Hospital, Falls Church, VA, United States.
With recent improvements in the treatment of end-stage liver disease (ESLD), a better understanding of the burden of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is needed in the United States (US). A population-based study using the US Census and national mortality database was performed. We identified the age-standardized etiology-specific mortality rates for cirrhosis and HCC among US adults aged ≥ 20 years from 2007 to 2016. We determined temporal mortality rate patterns by joinpoint analysis with estimates of annual percentage change (APC). Age-standardized cirrhosis-related mortality rates increased from 19.77/100,000 persons in 2007 to 23.67 in 2016 with an annual increase of 2.3% (95% CI 2.0-2.7). The APC in mortality rates for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-cirrhosis shifted from a 2.9% increase per year during 2007-2014 to a 6.5% decline per year during 2014-2016. Meanwhile, mortality for cirrhosis from alcoholic liver disease (ALD, APC 4.5%) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, APC 15.4%) increased over the same period, while mortality for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-cirrhosis decreased with an average APC of -1.1%. HCC-related mortality increased from 3.48/100,000 persons in 2007 to 4.41 in 2016 at an annual rate of 2.0% (95% CI 1.3-2.6). Etiology-specific mortality rates of HCC were largely consistent with cirrhosis-related mortality. Minority populations had a higher burden of HCC-related mortality.
Cirrhosis- and HCC-related mortality rates increased between 2007 and 2016 in the US. However, mortality rates in HCV-cirrhosis demonstrated a significant decline from 2014-2016, during the direct-acting antiviral era. Mortality rates for ALD/NAFLD-cirrhosis and HCC have continued to increase, while HBV-cirrhosis-related mortality declined during the 10-year period. Importantly, minorities had a disproportionately higher burden of ESLD-related mortality.