Department of Medicine 2, Liver Center Munich, University Hospital, LMU., Munich, Germany.
Hepatology Department at the Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon University, Institut Universitaire de France, Lyon, France.
Viral Hepatitis Team, Cancer Research Center of Lyon (CRCL), INSERM, Lyon University, Lyon, France.
Department of Internal Medicine I, Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Endocrinology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.
Hepatology, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
University Clinic of Visceral Surgery and Medicine, Inselspital Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
BCLC Group, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBEREHD, Barcelona, Spain.
Pathology Department Beaujon Hospital & INSERM, INSERM 1149, University Paris-Diderot, Paris, France.
Department of Radiology, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Endocrinology and Nephrology, Klinikum Klagenfurt am Wörthersee, Klagenfurt, Austria.
Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center I, Mainz, Germany.
National Cancer Institute, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Gastrointestinal Malignancy Section, Thoracic and GI Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Unité Mixte de Recherche 1162, Génomique fonctionnelle des tumeurs solides, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Paris, France.
Liver unit, Hôpital Jean Verdier, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Seine-Saint-Denis, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.
Unité de Formation et de Recherche Santé Médecine et Biologie Humaine, Université Paris 13, Communauté d'Universités et Etablissements Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
Programme of Hepatology, CIMA, IdiSNA, CIBERehd, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks number three among the most frequent causes of death from solid tumors worldwide. With obesity and fatty liver diseases as risk factors on the rise, HCC represents an ever increasing challenge. While there is still no curative treatment for most patients numerous novel drugs have been proposed, but most ultimately failed in phase III trials. This manuscript targets therapeutic advances and most burning issues. Expert key point summaries and urgent research agenda are provided regarding risk factors, including microbiota, need for prognostic and predictive biomarkers and the equivocal role of liver biopsy. Therapeutic topics highlighted are locoregional techniques, combination therapies and the potential of immunotherapy. Finally the manuscript provides a critical evaluation of novel targets and strategies for personalized treatment of HCC.