1Center for Disease Analysis Foundation, Lafayette, Colorado, USA.
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of liver disease and related mortality globally. However, most of the infected individuals in the United States remain undiagnosed and untreated. There is a need to understand more completely the economic and disease burden impact of removing treatment restrictions and increasing diagnosis and treatment. The PRoGReSs model, a dynamic HBV model that tracks the infected population by year, disease stage, and gender, was used to quantify the disease and economic burden of chronic HBV infection in the United States from 2020 to 2050 based on four scenarios: a status quo (base) scenario and three treat-all scenarios, in which screening, diagnosis, and treatment were maximized at different annual treatment price levels of $5382, $2000 and $750. Compared to the base scenario, the treat-all scenarios would avert 71,100 acute and 11,100 chronic incident cases of HBV, and 169,000 liver-related deaths from 2020 to 2050. At an annual treatment cost of $2000, treating all HBV infections would be highly cost-effective, and at $750 would be cost saving and would achieve a positive return on investment before 2050. Maximizing the diagnosed and treated HBV population in the United States would avert a significant number of cases of advanced liver disease and related mortality. Such interventions can also be cost-effective compared to the status quo strategy, and cost saving at a treatment price threshold of $750 annually, above the current lowest annual treatment cost of $362.