1Section of Academic General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92123, USA.
2Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, CA 92134, USA.
3Department of Pediatrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.
As the obesity pandemic worsens, cases of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and complications of this disease, such as progressive liver failure, in young adults will continue to rise. Lifestyle changes in the form of dietary modifications and exercise are currently first-line treatments. Large pediatric-specific randomized controlled trials to support specific interventions are currently lacking. A variety of dietary modifications in children with NAFLD have been suggested and studied with mixed results, including low-sugar and high-protein diets, the Mediterranean diet, and the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH). The roles of dietary supplements such as Vitamin E, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), ginger, and probiotics have also been investigated. A further understanding of specific dietary interventions and supplements is needed to provide both generalizable and sustainable dietary recommendations to reverse the progression of NAFLD in the pediatric population.