1Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
2Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Tumour markers could be helpful along the continuum of care for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma; however, there is insufficient data for routine use of most current biomarkers in clinical practice. Therefore, the backbone of early detection, diagnosis and treatment response for hepatocellular carcinoma remains imaging-based. Alpha fetoprotein is the best studied of all biomarkers and may be of benefit for early detection when used in combination with ultrasound. Several other biomarkers, including AFP-L3, DCP, osteopontin, and GP73, are also being evaluated for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in phase III biomarker studies. Serum and tissue-based biomarkers and genomics may aid in HCC diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment selection; however, further studies are needed to better characterize their accuracy and potential role in clinical practice.