1Second Department of Neurology, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Sobieskiego 9, 02-957, Warsaw, Poland.
2Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland.
3Department of Gastroenterology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
4Second Department of Neurology, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Sobieskiego 9, 02-957, Warsaw, Poland. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Introduction: Neurological deterioration, soon after anti-copper treatment initiation, is problematic in the management of Wilson's disease (WD) and yet reports in the literature are limited. The aim of our study was to systematically assess the data according to early neurological deteriorations in WD, its outcome and risk factors.
Methods: Using PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review of available data on early neurological deteriorations was performed by searching the PubMed database and reference lists. Random effects meta-analytic models summarized cases of neurological deterioration by disease phenotype.
Results: Across the 32 included articles, 217 cases of early neurological deterioration occurred in 1512 WD patients (frequency 14.3%), most commonly in patients with neurological WD (21.8%; 167/763), rarely in hepatic disease (1.3%; 5/377), and with no cases among asymptomatic individuals. Most neurological deterioration occurred in patients treated with d-penicillamine (70.5%; 153/217), trientine (14.2%; 31/217) or zinc salts (6.9%; 15/217); the data did not allow to determine if that reflects how often treatments were chosen as first line therapy or if the risk of deterioration differed with therapy. Symptoms completely resolved in 24.2% of patients (31/128), resolved partially in 27.3% (35/128), did not improve in 39.8% (51/128), with 11 patients lost to follow-up.
Conclusions: Given its occurrence in up to 21.8% of patients with neurological WD in this meta-analysis of small studies, there is a need for further investigations to distinguish the natural time course of WD from treatment-related early deterioration and to develop a standard definition for treatment-induced effects.